Bibliográfia - Éghajlatváltozás pszichológiai hatásai

1. Susan Clayton (2020) Climate anxiety: Psychological responses to climate change, Journal of Anxiety Disorders (74)       


Climate change will affect psychological wellbeing. Substantial research has documented harmful impacts on physical health, mental health, and social relations from exposure to extreme weather events that are associated with climate change. Recently, attention has turned to the possible effects of climate change on mental health through emotional responses such as increased anxiety. This paper discusses the nature of climate anxiety and some evidence for its existence, and speculates about ways to address it. Although climate anxiety appears to be a real phenomenon that deserves clinical attention, it is important to distinguish between adaptive and maladaptive levels of anxiety. A focus on individual mental health should not distract attention from the societal response that is necessary to address climate change.


2. Panu, Pihkala (2020) Anxiety and the Ecological Crisis: An Analysis of Eco-Anxiety and Climate Anxiety, Sustainability 12(19)


Eco-anxiety and climate anxiety are widely discussed in contemporary media and are subjects of growing research interest. However, there is a lack of research about the definitions and variations of these phenomena. This article analyzes various views of eco-anxiety from a wide range of disciplines. Insights from various anxiety theories are used to discuss empirical studies about forms of eco-anxiety. The article points out that uncertainty, unpredictability, and uncontrollability seem to be important factors in eco-anxiety. Most forms of eco-anxiety appear to be non-clinical, but cases of “pathological” eco-anxiety are also discussed. Other relevant terms and phenomena are scrutinized, such as ecological grief, solastalgia, and ecological trauma. The relationship between studies on eco-anxiety and research about ecological emotions and affect is probed. Eco-anxiety is found to be closely connected to fear and worry, but several disciplines include discussion of its character as existential anxiety. Psychosocial and sociological perspectives point out that social dynamics shape forms of eco-anxiety in profound ways. While paralyzing forms of eco-anxiety emerge as a problem, it is noted that eco-anxiety manifests itself also as “practical anxiety”, which leads to gathering of new information and reassessment of behavior options. This variety of forms of eco-anxiety should be taken into account in healthcare and public discussion.



3. Susan Clayton, Bryan T. Karazsia (2020) Development and validation of a measure of climate change anxiety, Journal of Environmental Psychology (69)


There is increasing attention to the negative emotional responses associated with awareness of climate change. We present three studies developing a scale of climate change anxiety. In Study 1, the scale was developed and validated in an MTurk sample of 197. Exploratory factor analysis of our item pool revealed a four-factor structure, with cognitive-emotional impairment, functional impairment, behavioral engagement, and experience emerging as unique factors. Cognitive-emotional impairment and functional impairment were considered to constitute subscales for climate change anxiety; along with behavioral engagement, they were all related to experience as well as to negative emotions. Neither climate change anxiety nor general depression and anxiety were related to behavioral engagement. Study 2 replicated the factor structure as well as the pattern of correlations in a second MTurk sample of 199. Study 3 examined the relationship between climate change anxiety and adaptation responses in a sample of 217, and tested whether climate change anxiety scores would be affected by the framing of a climate change message. Overall, results suggest that climate change anxiety is not uncommon, especially among younger adults; that worry can be differentiated from a more serious impact on one's life; and that climate change anxiety is correlated with emotional but not behavioral responses to climate change.


4. Sarah Jaquette Ray (2020) A Field Guide to Climate Anxiety, How to Keep Your Cool on a Warming Planet, University of California Press


A youth movement is reenergizing global environmental activism. The “climate generation”—late millennials and iGen, or Generation Z—is demanding that policy makers and government leaders take immediate action to address the dire outcomes predicted by climate science. Those inheriting our planet’s environmental problems expect to encounter challenges, but they may not have the skills to grapple with the feelings of powerlessness and despair that may arise when they confront this seemingly intractable situation.

Drawing on a decade of experience leading and teaching in college environmental studies programs, Sarah Jaquette Ray has created an “existential tool kit” for the climate generation. Combining insights from psychology, sociology, social movements, mindfulness, and the environmental humanities, Ray explains why and how we need to let go of eco-guilt, resist burnout, and cultivate resilience while advocating for climate justice. A Field Guide to Climate Anxiety is the essential guidebook for the climate generation—and perhaps the rest of us—as we confront the greatest environmental threat of our time.

5. Steven Taylor (2020) Anxiety disorders, climate change, and the challenges ahead: Introduction to the special issue, Journal of Anxiety Disorders (76)


Climate change involves (1) increases in the prevalence of extreme weather events (e.g., wildfires, floods, hurricanes), (2) more gradual climatic changes (e.g., rising sea levels, desertification), and (3) increased risks of pandemics and other widespread disease outbreaks. Anxiety evoked by the threat of climate change can be either adaptive or maladaptive. Adaptive anxiety can motivate climate activism, such as efforts to reduce one’s carbon footprint. Maladaptive anxiety can take the form of anxious passivity, where the person feels anxious but incapable of addressing the problem of climate change, and may take the form of an anxiety disorder triggered or exacerbated by climatic stressors. Such stressors may involve exposure to extreme weather events or may involve exposure to other stressors such as forced migration due to rising sea levels or desertification. Three types of interventions are needed to address the various types of climate-related anxiety: (1) programs that motivate people to overcome anxious passivity and thereby take action to mitigate the effects of climate change, (2) treatment programs that address anxiety associated with exposure to climatic stressors, and (3) programs that build resilience at an individual and community level, to help people better cope with the challenges ahead.


6. Budziszewska M, Jonsson SE. (2021) From Climate Anxiety to Climate Action: An Existential Perspective on Climate Change Concerns Within Psychotherapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology


With the growing body of knowledge climate change stands out as one of the most important contemporary problems. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change confirms the urgent necessity to reduce greenhouse gases emission, as the window to address the problem is becoming narrow. Rising temperatures and bushfires, melting glaciers and droughts make the acceleration of climate change evident, and citizens around the globe are increasingly worried about the magnitude of the problem. In this article, we propose an existential perspective on climate change-related concerns. Although environmental worries are legitimate, they sometimes cause severe anxiety and distress so aggravated as to be discussed within the framework of psychotherapy. In the course of this research, we examine the experiences of 10 Swedish psychotherapy clients addressing their climate concerns within treatment. We engage them into in-depth conversations about the experience of climate anxiety and inquire about the individual pathways toward recovery. Moreover, we propose the existential perspective as a tool to understand such experiences. We aim to address all existential concerns, as described in Ernesto Spinelli’s themes of existence framework: death anxiety, spatiality, temporality, meaning, relatedness, authenticity, freedom, and responsibility. All of the above are present in participants’ reports of climate anxiety. In conclusion, we emphasize the value of introducing existential perspective to practitioners working with clients experiencing climate distress.


7. Ashlee Cunsolo, Sherilee L Harper, Kelton Minor, Katie Hayes, Kimberly G Williams, Courtney Howard (2020) Ecological grief and anxiety: the start of a healthy response to climate change? The Lancet Planetary Health (4)7


8. Judy Wu, Gaelen Snell, Hasina Samji (2020) Climate anxiety in young people: a call to action, The Lancet Planetary Health (4)10


9. Samantha K. Stanley, Teaghan L. Hogg, Zoe Leviston, Iain Walker (2021) From anger to action: Differential impacts of eco-anxiety, eco-depression, and eco-anger on climate action and wellbeing, The Journal of Climate Change and Health (1)


Research documents the experiences of depression and anxiety evoked by climate change, but little attention has been given to frustration and anger, or to untangling the effects of different emotional responses to the climate crisis on human and planetary health. Using Australian national survey data, we found that experiencing eco-anger predicted better mental health outcomes, as well as greater engagement in pro-climate activism and personal behaviours. Eco-anxiety and eco-depression were less adaptive, relating to lower wellbeing. Interestingly, those feeling eco-depressed were more likely to report participating in collective climate action, while those feeling eco-anxious were less likely to join the cause. Our findings implicate anger as a key adaptive emotional driver of engagement with the climate crisis, and prompt warnings about the mental health of populations increasingly worried and miserable about climate change.


10. Tobias Brosch (2021) Affect and emotions as drivers of climate change perception and action: a review, Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences (42)


Recent findings and emerging trends concerning the role ofaffect and emotion in climate change perceptions and judgments as well as their potential as drivers of sustainable action are reviewed. The affective responses people experience toward climate change are consistently found to be among the strongest predictors of risk perceptions, mitigation behavior, adaptation behavior, policy support, and technology acceptance. As correlational results do not imply that inducing affective states will necessarily lead to the corresponding changes in a target population, research efforts now should focus on establishing the causal pathways from affect and emotion towards climate action. Communication and intervention studies show that inducing both positive and negative emotions may under certain conditions promote sustainable behavior, but the field would benefit from a stronger integration of concepts and findings from affective psychology. Explicitly considering the mechanisms by which emotions influence decisions and actions may help design more efficient affective interventions.


11. Nielsen, KS, Clayton, S, Stern, PC, Dietz, T, Capstick, S & Whitmarsh, L 2021, How Psychology Can Help Limit Climate Change, American Psychologist (76)1, pp. 130-144



The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has encouraged psychologists to become part of the integrated scientific effort to support the achievement of climate change targets such as keeping within 1.5°C or 2°C of global warming. To date, the typical psychological approach has been to demonstrate that specific concepts and theories can predict behaviors that contribute to or mitigate climate change. Psychologists need to go further and, in particular, show that integrating psychological concepts into feasible interventions can reduce greenhouse gas emissions far more than would be achieved without such integration. While critiquing some aspects of current approaches, we describe psychological research that is pointing the way by distinguishing different types of behavior, acknowledging sociocultural context, and collaborating with other disciplines. Engaging this challenge offers psychologists new opportunities for promoting mitigation, advancing psychological understanding, and developing better interdisciplinary interactions.



12. Balmford, A, Bradbury, RB, Bauer, JM, Broad, S, Burgess, G, Burgman, M,  Byerly, H,  Clayton, S,  Espelosin, Ferraro, DPJ,  Fisher, B, Garnett, EE, Jones, JPG, Marteau, TM, Otieno, M, Polasky, S, Ricketts, TH, Sandbrook, C, Sullivan-Wiley, K, Trevelyan, R, van der Linden, S, Veríssimo, D, Steensen Nielsen, KS, (2021) Making more effective use of human behavioural science in conservation interventions, Biological Conversation (261)


Conservation is predominantly an exercise in trying to change human behaviour – whether that of consumers whose choices drive unsustainable resource use, of land managers clearing natural habitats, or of policymakers failing to deliver on environmental commitments. Yet conservation research and practice have made only limited use of recent advances in behavioural science, including more novel behaviour change interventions. Instead conservationists mostly still rely on traditional behaviour change interventions – education, regulation and material incentivisation – largely without applying recent insights from behavioural science about how to improve such approaches. This paper explores how behavioural science could be more widely and powerfully applied in biodiversity conservation. We consider the diverse cast of actors involved in conservation problems and the resulting breadth of behaviour change that conservationists might want to achieve. Drawing on health research, we present a catalogue of types of interventions for changing behaviour, considering both novel, standalone interventions and the enhancement of more traditional conservation interventions. We outline a framework for setting priorities among interventions based on their likely impact, using ideas developed for climate change mitigation. We caution that, despite its promise, behavioural science is not a silver bullet for conservation. The effects of interventions aimed at changing behaviour can be modest, temporary, and context-dependent in ways that are as-yet poorly understood. We therefore close with a call for interventions to be tested and the findings widely disseminated to enable researchers and practitioners to build a much-needed evidence base on the effectiveness and limitations of these tools.


13. Moran, D, Wood, R, Hertwich, E, Mattson, K, Rodriguez, KFD, Schanes, K & Barrett, J, (2020) Quantifying the potential for consumer-oriented policy to reduce European and foreign carbon emissions, Climate Policy (20)1, pp. 28-38


The EU Carbon-CAP project assembled a comprehensive portfolio of consumer initiatives in order to assess the potential total impact of consumer options on national carbon footprints. Existing evaluations of behavioural change have focused primarily on direct energy reductions, typically in households and buildings. However, changes in consumer demand have deeper impacts via their upstream supply chains. The consumer behaviour options considered in the portfolio focus on green household initiatives. Combining existing micro-level studies with a multiregional input-output economic model, we estimated the potential efficacy and uptake of each behaviour across the European Union (EU). The results suggest that adopting these consumer options could reduce carbon footprints by approximately 25%. While 75% of this is delivered as reductions in emissions within Europe, one-quarter of the effect is delivered as a reduced imported carbon footprint, due to changes in the composition of imports.


14. Chen, C, Wang, Y, Adua, L, Bai, H, (2020) Unlocking the Potential of Reducing Fossil Fuel Consumption in the Household Sector by Enabling Technology and Behavior,  Energy Research & Social Science 60


Inspired by Beyond Politics and extending its thesis focusing on the household sector’s potential in enabling energy efficiency technology and behavioral plasticity in reducing carbon emissions, we examine this sector’s critical role in the operation of grid-connected technologies, particularly electric vehicles (EVs) and demand response (DR), through the lens of private governance. In this perspective, we present a framework for understanding social-technological integration. We discuss the role of households’ actions in technology adoption and operation and utilities’ actions contributing to the impact of these technologies on emissions reduction. Our perspective attempts to offer a brief overview and some insights regarding the energy-saving potential from consumer initiatives and utility programs in motivating customers to adopt DR and EVs, while highlighting the behavioral challenges to realizing sufficient reductions in carbon emissions. We observe, indeed, that the household sector can contribute significantly to the reduction of carbon emissions with



15. Olsson, A., Knapska, E., & Lindström, B. (2020). The neural and computational systems of social learning. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 21(4), 197-212.


Learning the value of stimuli and actions from others — social learning — adaptively contributes to individual survival and plays a key role in cultural evolution. We review research across species targeting the neural and computational systems of social learning in both the aversive and appetitive domains. Social learning generally follows the same principles as self-experienced value-based learning, including computations of prediction errors and is implemented in brain circuits activated across task domains together with regions processing social information. We integrate neural and computational perspectives of social learning with an understanding of behaviour of varying complexity, from basic threat avoidance to complex social learning strategies and cultural phenomena.


16. Tekleab, A. G., Reagan, P. M., Do, B., Levi, A., & Lichtman, C. (2021). Translating corporate social responsibility into action: a social learning perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 171(4), 741-756.



Interest in the microfoundations of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has grown over the past decade. In this study, we draw on social learning theory to examine the effects of prosocial leaders on followers’ motivation to engage in CSR practices, and consequently on their CSR performance. Further drawing from social learning theory, we propose that followers’ trait compliance and leader-member exchange moderate the above relationships by affecting the conceptual mechanisms of social rewards and role-modeling motives. We tested our hypotheses with data from a sample of 138 employees (i.e., followers) who were responsible for implementing an organization-initiated CSR practice. Our results showed that among followers who were high in trait compliance, leaders’ prosocial motivation was positively associated with followers' CSR motivation. In addition, followers’ CSR motivation was positively related to their objective CSR performance when they had a high-quality relationship with their leaders. Our findings advance our understanding of the conditions under which leaders will be more versus less influential on followers’ motivation and engagement in CSR activities. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our results.



17. Gupta, A, Chatterjee Singh, NC, K. Duraiappah, A (2019) Education for Humanity

Freire and Sen Re-Examined. In: Torres, CA (Ed.) The Wiley Handbook of Paulo Freire, pp. 321-334.



In this paper, we propose that education systems be designed to ensure that individuals are nourished so that societies may flourish. Specifically, we review Sen's model of human flourishing and Freire's pedagogy of the oppressed in the context of recent neurobiological findings of brain organization and learning. We attempt to demonstrate how the Freire system that advocates a bottom-up approach is compatible with Sen's capability approach and a combination of the two provides a natural process to nourish the human brain that is neurobiologically wired to accommodate both. We argue that pedagogies and education systems that are designed to harness natural neurobiological development might provide optimal paths to peaceful and sustainable societies.


18. Espino-Díaz L, Alvarez-Castillo J-L, Gonzalez-Gonzalez H, Hernandez-Lloret C-M, Fernandez-Caminero G. (2020) Creating Interactive Learning Environments through the Use of Information and Communication Technologies Applied to Learning of Social Values: An Approach from Neuro-Education. Social Sciences. 9(5)



In order to link learning and the brain, it is necessary to carry out a restructuring of pedagogical practice so that it can be linked to the contributions of Neurosciences. In this sense, Neuro-education is emerging as a new science that has as its main objective the synergy of Pedagogy, Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience, and with this, being able to bring the different educational agents the necessary resources in terms of the brain and learning binomial This article focuses on the importance of education in values, and the acquisition of prosocial behavior and how this educational field can be developed from the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). The challenge before us is to build the map of values, which make the individual a fulfilled being and, in turn, a collaborator of the social environment. On the other hand, ICTs offer enormous potential in terms of their application in the field of education. In this article we will show the role that this type of tools can play in the learning and assimilation of values, bearing in mind the contributions of neuro-education.



19. Mark, B (2020) Middle school students and climate change: Assessing attitudes and emotions.

Master of Environmental Studies Capstone Projects. 88.



While it is common knowledge that the majority of American adults hold a variety of strong and polarized beliefs and attitudes about climate change, much less is known about how American youth are thinking and feeling about this topic. This information gap is significant, because attitudes and beliefs formed in childhood (particularly during early adolescence) have a profound impact on future behaviors. Feelings, emotional responses, matter for two reasons. One, emotions significantly influence the openness and ability to learn about the science of climate change. Two, once learned, the science of climate change itself can evoke strong and often distressing emotions. The more parents and teachers understand children’s emotions and attitudes about climate change, the more effectively they will teach and guide them. This study assessed middle school students’ reactions to watching an informational video about climate change via two pre and post video assessment tools, the Climate Change Attitude Survey (CCAS) and the Positive and Negative Affects Scale for Children (PANAS-C). On the PANAS-C, there was a significant increase in negative emotions after viewing the video (p<.001). Similarly, on the CCAS, student’s belief that climate change has a negative impact on humans was significantly greater after watching the video (p <.001). Our remaining findings relied on qualitative data; we describe our observations of how a skilled adult (the classroom teacher) helped the students process their emotional reactions to exposure to information about the current climate crisis. Conclusions from this study can be used to develop and refine climate change curricula and teaching practices, as well as inform mental health professionals who work with middle school students.



20. Goodwill, AM., and SH Annabel Chen. “The Science of Lifelong Learning.” PsyArXiv, 12 Apr. 2021. Web.



The impetus for nations to build resilience for rapid changes and uncertainty, and the increasing complexity of challenges has made sustainable development a priority. Lifelong learning holds the key to sustainability in maximizing human potential to address the needs of the future. The development of the science of lifelong learning is emerging and gaining traction through interdisciplinary discourse and research. It has provided a framework to view lifelong learning from cradle to grave with foundations in our understanding of brain development, degeneration, and plasticity . The space for lifelong learning is interactive, life-wide and entrenched in rich social contexts. Thus, the translation of scientific knowledge (including neuroscience) to be consumable by the masses (the learners), and the agents providing knowledge (the educators and parents), will be instrumental in promoting inclusive and participatory processes of knowledge production and sharing. We envision the science of lifelong learning to empower learners from diverse backgrounds and societies to have the capacity to contribute to a learning planet. This chapter provides a brief overview of the current state of the science of lifelong learning. We will showcase some ongoing research on the science of learning at our centre in Singapore and discuss implications of lifelong learning for futures of education, economy, health, and well-being.



21. Gustafson, A, Ballew, MT, Goldberg, MH, Cutler, MJ, Rosenthal, SA, Leiserowitz, A (2020) Personal Stories Can Shift Climate Change Beliefs and Risk Perceptions: The Mediating Role of Emotion. Communication Reports (33)3, 121-135




Sharing personal stories of how climate change is already harming people is a promising communication strategy to engage diverse and even skeptical audiences. Using two experiments, we test the effects of a radio story on the climate change beliefs and risk perceptions of political moderates and conservatives. The radio story, which aired on hundreds of stations across the U.S., is a North Carolina sportsman’s personal account of how climate change has already affected the places he loves. Both experiments found positive effects on global warming beliefs and risk perceptions. Additionally, Study 2 found these effects were mediated by emotional reactions of worry and compassion. These studies suggest personal stories can be a persuasive communication strategy.


22.  Roussell, D, & Cutter-Mckenzie-Knowles, A, (2020) A systematic review of climate change education: giving children and young people a ‘voice’ and a ‘hand’ in redressing climate change. Children’s Geographies (18)2, 191-208


The reality of anthropogenic climate change has been established ‘beyond reasonable doubt’ by leading scientists worldwide. Applying a systematic literature review process, we analysed existing literature from 1993 to 2014 regarding climate change education for children and young people, with the aim of identifying key areas for further research. While a number of studies have indicated that young people’s understandings of climate change are generally limited, erroneous and highly influenced by mass media, other studies suggest that didactic approaches to climate change education have been largely ineffectual in affecting students’ attitudes and behaviour. The review identifies the need for participatory, interdisciplinary, creative, and affect-driven approaches to climate change education, which to date have been largely missing from the literature. In conclusion, we call for the development of new forms of climate change education that directly involve young people in responding to the scientific, social, ethical, and political complexities of climate change.



23. Ouariachi T, Li C-Y, Elving WJL. (2020), Gamification Approaches for Education and Engagement on Pro-Environmental Behaviors: Searching for Best Practices. Sustainability 12(11)



Education is a key factor to respond to the threat of climate change, increasing not only knowledge but also encouraging changes in attitudes and behaviors to adopt sustainable lifestyles. Scholars and practitioners in the field of education call for innovative ways of engaging youth—a reason why gamification has gained more attention in recent years. This paper aims at exploring the role of gamification in affecting pro-environmental behavioral change and searching for best practices for educational purposes. For that aim, pro-environmental gamification platforms are identified and analyzed by applying two different frameworks: the Octalysis Framework and the Climate Change Engagement through Games Framework. After scanning 181 cases, a final sample of six is analyzed and two of them are selected as best practices with higher potential to engage users in pro-environmental behavioral change: SaveOhno and JouleBug. Meaning, ownership, and social influence, as well as achievability, challenge, and credibility, are seen as core elements that can increase the success of gamification platforms. In conclusion, the more attributes are enclosed in the gamification design, the stronger physical and mental connections it builds up with participants. Insights from this study can help educators to select best practices and gamification designers to better influence behavioral change through game mechanics.


24. Carlson, KM, Kaull, H, Steinhauer, M, Zigarac, A, Cammarata, J (2020) Paying attention to climate change: Positive images of climate change solutions capture attention. Journal of Environmental Psychology (71)



The impact of anthropogenic climate change is an ever-pressing challenge facing the global community. Making changes to minimize the negative effects of climate change is critical. Visual images of climate change are emotionally salient and have been found to capture attention. However, the degree to which emotional valence (i.e., positive or negative) and aspect of climate change (i.e., potential cause, effect, or solution) influence attentional capture by climate change relevant images is unknown. Across three experiments, we addressed this knowledge gap by measuring attention to these types of images with a dot-probe task. We found a consistent capture of attention by emotionally positive images of climate change solutions (e.g., windmills and solar panels), but not emotionally negative images of causes (e.g., industrial pollution) and effects (e.g., natural disasters and melting polar ice caps) of climate change. Negative images of climate change were found to produce a general slowing of reaction time, which may reflect a “freezing” response. Individual differences in attentional capture by climate change images were related to environmental disposition. Our results suggest that positive images of climate change solutions are attention grabbing and in turn may be the most suitable images to motivate environmentally frie





25. Ng, S. & Basu, S. (2019) Global Identity and Preference for Environmentally Friendly Products: The Role of Personal Responsibility. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 50 (8). pp. 919-936.



This research tests the idea that a salient global identity positively affects people’s willingness to pay for environmentally friendly products. Results from a large-scale multination survey (N = 75,934) as well as two studies (N = 322) conducted in Singapore supported this prediction. We found that participants with a more (versus less) dominant global identity indicated greater support for environmentally friendly products and exhibited increased pro-environmental behavior. We further show that the effect is driven by a stronger feeling of personal responsibility towards the environment among individuals who possess a dominant global identity. Findings from this research suggest that the formation of stronger global identity, a psychological consequence of increasing globalization, can have an important impact on people’s pro environmental behavior.


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