During the course of research we have outlined the theoretical background of the reform of the state and of the structural change of public administration and governance. We have surveyed changes in the idea of the state and the phases of its transformation historically as well as analytically. We have also surveyed the reflections in the written press as well as in the press in general on the governmental promises concerning the radical transformation of public administration, as well as the concepts of governmental actors published in the press, together with contributions of experts and intellectuals to the topic. On the basis of the research results the background institutions could be described along three models: such as bureau-like ones, research institutes and non-budgetary type models. The proposal for determining the level of output and efficiency of the background institutions is a new element. A part of our analysis not to be neglected is meant to raise problems, which, together with its hypothetic elements may, on the one hand, lay down the foundations of further research, and hopefully it may contribute to a more objective and specified assessment and understanding of the relationship between ministries and background institutes on the other, as well as to a professional foundation of future decisions related to the reform of the state.